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The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, akin to the Hebrew calendar & Hindu Calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. In China today, the Gregorian calendar is used for most day to day activities, but the Chinese calendar is still used for marking traditional Chinese holidays such as Chinese New Year (Spring Festival), Duan Wu festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival, and in astrology, such as choosing the most auspicious date for a wedding or the opening of a building. Because each month follows one cycle of the moon, it is also used to determine the phases of the moon.
In China, the traditional calendar is known as the "agricultural calendar" while the Gregorian calendar is known as the "common calendar" or "Western calendar" . Another name for the Chinese calendar is the "Yin Calendar"in reference to the lunar aspect of the calendar, whereas the Gregorian calendar is the "Yang Calendar" in reference to its solar properties. The Chinese calendar was also called the "old calendar" (舊曆 jìulì, after the "new calendar" (新曆 xīnlì, i.e. the Gregorian calendar, was adopted as the official calendar. The traditional calendar are also often referred to as "the Xia Calendar". However, strictly speaking the Xia Calendar is not the same as the present calendar and refers instead to its earliest predecessor.
- 1 History
- 2 Calendar rules
- 3 Year markings
- 4 Hours of the day
- 5 The Chinese zodiac
- 6 Solar term
- 7 Holidays
- 8 Purpose of the intercalary months
- 9 The relevance of the calendar today
- 10 Influence
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
History[edit | edit source]
Legendary beginnings[edit | edit source]
According to legend, the Chinese calendar developed during the third millennium BC. Scholars proclaim the Chinese Calendar as the oldest surviving calendar system in the world. It is said to have been invented by the first legendary ruler, Huang Di or the Yellow Emperor, who reigned, by tradition, c.2698-2599 BC. The fourth legendary ruler, Emperor Yao, added the intercalary month. The 60-year "stem-branch" (干支 gānzhī) cycle (see "Calendar rules" below) was first used to mark days during the second millennium BC. Tradition fixes the first year of the first cycle (the epoch) at 2637 BC (see Herbert A. Giles, A Chinese-English Dictionary (1912), and other Western authors writing in the late Qing dynasty). Thus the cycle beginning in 1984 is the 78th. Other opinions fix the first year at 2697 BC (while Huang Di was still immature), by which count we are now in cycle 79. (See the section on Continuously-numbered yearsandthetablebelow for more information about these correspondences.)
Early history[edit | edit source]
The earliest archaeological evidence of the Chinese calendar appears on oracle bones of the late second millennium BC Shang dynasty. They show a 12-month lunisolar year having an occasional thirteenth month, and even a fourteenth month. Adding extra months to a calendar year is known as intercalation, and keeps the new year from drifting backwards through the seasons, just as the Gregorian Calendar puts an extra day in February every four years.
Historical dates have been exactly determinable since 841 BC, in the Zhou dynasty. It is known that in this period the calendar used arbitrary intercalations. The first month of its year was near the winter solstice and the intercalary month was after the twelfth month. The sìfēn 四分 (quarter remainder) calendar, which began about 484 BC, was the first calculated Chinese calendar, so named because it used a solar year of 365¼ days, along with a 19-year (235-month) Rule Cycle, known in the West as the Metonic cycle. The winter solstice was in its first month and its intercalary month was inserted after the twelfth month. Beginning in 256 BC, it was first used by the Qin state, then the whole country after the Qin took over the whole country and became the Qin dynasty. In this calendar, the intercalary month was an extra ninth month at the end of a year that began with the tenth month, now placing the winter solstice in the eleventh month. This calendar continued to be used during the first half of the Western Han Dynasty.
The Taichu Calendar[edit | edit source]
The Emperor Wu of the Western Han dynasty introduced reforms that have governed the Chinese calendar ever since. His Tàichū 太初 (Grand Inception) calendar of 104 BC had a year with the winter solstice in the eleventh month and designated as intercalary any calendar month (a month of 29 or 30 whole days) during which the sun does not pass a principal term (that is, remained within the same sign of the zodiac throughout). Because the sun's mean motion was used to calculate the jiéqì (節氣/节气) (or seasonal markings) until 1645, this intercalary month was equally likely to occur after any month of the year. The conjunction of the sun and moon (the astronomical new moon) was calculated using the mean motions of both the sun and moon until 619, the second year of the Tang dynasty, when chronologists began to use true motions modeled using two offset opposing parabolas (with small linear and cubic components). Unfortunately, the parabolas did not meet smoothly at the mean motion, but met with a discontinuity or jump.
The true sun and moon[edit | edit source]
With the introduction of Western astronomy into China via the Jesuits, the motions of both the sun and moon began to be calculated with sinusoids in the 1645 Shíxiàn calendar (時憲書, Book of the Conformity of Time) of the Qing dynasty, made by the Jesuit Adam Schall. The true motion of the sun was now used to calculate the jiéqì, which caused the intercalary month to often occur after the second through the ninth months, but rarely after the tenth through first months. A few autumn-winter periods have one or two calendar months where the sun enters two signs of the zodiac, interspersed with two or three calendar months where the sun stays within one sign.
The Pregnancy Week[edit | edit source]
The Chinese use of the seven day week, as used in the Babylonian calendar, was due to introduction by Jesuits in the 16th century. Commonly, the days of the week are given numbers and are known by them; Monday is day one of the week, Tuesday is day 2, Wednesday is day 3, Thursday is day 4, Friday is day 5, and Saturday is day 6. Sunday, however, is the day of the Sun and is thus the only day which does not continue with the pattern of the days of the week. The day numbers from Monday to Saturday are the same as in ISO 8601. Since nowadays most Chinese people have a day off on Sunday each week, having Monday as day one of the week corresponds to the common industrial and commercial practices, although many Chinese calendars show Sunday as the first day of a week.
The Gregorian Reform and the 1929 time change[edit | edit source]
was adopted by the nascent Republic of China effective January 1, 1912 for official business, but the general populace continued to use the traditional calendar. The status of the Gregorian calendar was unclear between 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords each supported by foreign colonial powers. From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to fight over northern China, but the Kuomintang or Nationalist government controlled southern China and used the Gregorian calendar. After the Kuomintang reconstituted the Republic of China October 10, 1928, the Gregorian calendar was officially adopted, effective 1 January, 1929. Along with this, the time zone for the whole country was adjusted to the coastal time zone that had been used in European treaty ports along the Chinese coast since 1904. This changed the beginning of each calendar day, for both the traditional and Gregorian calendars, by plus 14 minutes and 26 and one year off seconds from Beijing midnight to midnight at the longitude 120° east of Greenwich.
This caused some discrepancies, such as with the 1978 Mid-Autumn Festival. There was a new moon on September 3, 1978, at 00:07, Chinese Standard Time . Using the old Beijing timezone, the New Moon occurred at 23:53 on the 2nd, so the eighth month began on a different day in the calendars. Thus people in Hong Kong (using the traditional calendar) celebrated the Festival on 16 September, but those in the mainland celebrated on 17 September.  (see page 18)
Calendar rules[edit | edit source]
The following rules outline the Chinese calendar since c.104 BC. Note that the rules allow either mean or true motions of the Sun and Moon to be used, depending on the historical period.
- The months are lunar months. This means the first day of each month beginning at midnight is the day of the astronomical new moon. (Note, however, that a "day" in the Chinese calendar begins at 11 p.m. and not at midnight)
- Each year has 12 regular months, which are numbered in sequence (1 to 12) and have alternative names. Every second or third year has an intercalary month (閏月 rùnyuè), which may come after any regular month. It has the same number as the preceding regular month, but is designated intercalary.
- Every other jiéqì of the Chinese solar year is equivalent to an entry of the sun into a sign of the tropical zodiac (a principal term or cusp).
- The sun always passes the winter solstice (enters Capricorn) during month 11.
- If there are 12 months between two successive occurrences of month 11, at least one of these 12 months must be a month during which the sun remains within the same zodiac sign throughout (no principal term or cusp occurs within it). If only one such month occurs, it is designated intercalary, but if two such months occur, only the first is designated intercalary.
- The times of the astronomical new moons and the sun entering a zodiac sign are determined in the Chinese Time Zone by the Purple Mountain Observatory (紫金山天文台 Zǐjīnshān Tiānwéntái) outside Nanjing using modern astronomical equations.
The zodiac sign which the sun enters during the month and the ecliptic longitude of that entry point usually determine the number of a regular month. Month 1, zhēngyuè, literally means principal month. All other months are literally numbered, second month, third month, etc.
|#||Chinese name||Long.||Zodiac sign|
Some believe the above correspondence to be always true, but there are exceptions, which, for example, prevent Chinese New Year from always being the second new moon after the winter solstice, or that cause the holiday to occur after the Rain Water jieqi. An exception will occur in 2033-2034, when the winter solstice is the second solar term in the eleventh month. The next month is a no-entry month and so is intercalary, and a twelfth month follows which contains both the Aquarius and Pisces solar terms (deep cold and rain water). The Year of the Tiger thus begins on the third new moon following the Winter Solstice, and also occurs after the Pisces (rain water) jieqi, on February 19.
Another occurrence was in 1984-85, after the sun had entered both Capricorn at 270° and Aquarius at 300° in month 11, and then entered Pisces at 330° during the next month, which should have caused it to be month 1. The sun did not enter any sign during the next month. In order to keep the winter solstice in month 11, the month which should have been month 1 became month 12, and the month thereafter became month 1, causing Chinese New Year to occur on 20 February 1985 after the sun had already passed into Pisces at 330° during the previous month, rather than during the month beginning on that day.
On those occasions when a dual-entry month does occur, it always occurs somewhere between two months that do not have any entry (non-entry months). It usually occurs alone and either includes the winter solstice or is nearby, thus placing the winter solstice in month 11 (rule 4) chooses which of the two non-entry months becomes the intercalary month. In 1984-85, the month immediately before the dual-entry month 11 was a non-entry month which was designated as an intercalary month 10. All months from the dual-entry month to the non-entry month that is not to be intercalary are sequentially numbered with the nearby regular months (rule 2). The last phrase of rule 5, choosing the first of two non-entry months between months 11, has not been required since the last calendar reform, and will not be necessary until the 2033-34 occasion, when two dual-entry months will be interspersed among three non-entry months, two of which will be on one side of month 11. The leap eleventh month produced is a very rare occasion. See  for details.
Exceptions such as these are rare. Fully 96.6% of all months contain only one entry into a zodiacal sign (have one principal term or cusp), all obeying the numbering rules of the jiéqì table, and 3.0% of all months are intercalary months (always non-entry months between principal terms or cusps). Only 0.4% of all months either are dual-entry months (have two principal terms or cusps) or are neighboring months that are renumbered.
It is only after the 1645 reform that this situation arose. Then it became necessary to fix one month to always contain its principal term and allow any other to occasionally not contain its principal term. Month 11 was chosen, because its principal term (the winter solstice) forms the start of the Chinese Solar year (the sui).
The Chinese lunar calendar and the Gregorian Calendar often sync up every 19 years (Metonic cycle). Most Chinese people notice that their Chinese and Western birthdays often fall on the same day on their 19th, 38th birthday etc. However, a 19-year cycle with a certain set of intercalary months is only an approximation, so an almost identical pattern of intercalary months in subsequent cycles will eventually change after some multiple of 19 years to a quite different 19-year cycle.
The Chinese zodiac (see Nomenclature and Twelve Animals sections) is only used in naming years—it is not used in the actual calculation of the calendar. In fact, the Chinese have a very different constellation system.
The twelve months are closely connected with agriculture, so they are alternatively named after plants:
- Primens (first month) 正月: Latin "primus mensis".
- Apricomens (apricot month) 杏月: apricot blossoms.
- Peacimens (peach month) 桃月: peach blossoms.
- Plumens (plum month) 梅月: mei ripens.
- Guavamens (guava month) 榴月: pomegranate blossoms.
- Lotumens (lotus month) 荷月: lotus blossoms.
- Orchimens (orchid month) 蘭月: orchid blossoms.
- Osmanthumens (osmanthus month) 桂月: osmanthus blossoms.
- Chrysanthemens (chrysanthemum month) 菊月: chrysanthemum blossoms.
- Benimens (good month) 良月: good month.
- Hiemens (hiemal month) 冬月: hiemal month.
- Lamens (last month) 臘月: last month.
Year markings[edit | edit source]
Regnal years[edit | edit source]
Traditional Chinese years were not continuously numbered in the way that the BC/AD system is. More commonly, official year counting always used some form of a regnal year. This system began in 841 BC during the Zhou dynasty. Prior to this, years were not marked at all, and historical events cannot be dated exactly.
In 841 BC, the Li King Hu of Zhou (周厲王胡) was ousted by a civilian uprising (國人暴動), and the country was governed for the next fourteen years by a council of senior ministers, a period known as the Regency (共和行政). In this period, years were marked as First (second, third, etc) Year of the Regency.
Subsequently, years were marked as regnal years, e.g. the year 825 BC was marked as the 3rd Year of the Xuan King Jing of Zhou (周宣王三年). This system was used until early in the Han dynasty, when the Wen Emperor of Han (漢文帝劉恒) instituted regnal names. After this, most emperors used one or more regnal names to mark their reign. Usually, the emperor would institute a new name upon accession to the throne, and then change to new names to mark significant events, or to end a perceived cycle of bad luck. In the Ming dynasty, however, each emperor usually used only one regnal name for their reign. In Qing dynasty, each emperor used only one regnal name for their reign.
This system continued until the Republic of China, which counted years as Years of the Republic, beginning in 1912. Thus, 1912 is the 1st Year of the Republic, and 2006 the 95th. This system is still used for official purposes in Taiwan. For the rest of China, in 1949 the People's Republic of China chose to use the Common Era system (equivalently, AD/BC system), in line with Christian countries.
The stem-branch cycle[edit | edit source]
The other system by which years are marked historically in China was by the stem-branch or sexagenary cycle. This system is based on two forms of counting: a cycle of 10 Heavenly Stems and a cycle of 12 Earthly Branches. Each year is named by a pair of one stem and one branch called a Stem-Branch (干支 gānzhī). The Heavenly Stems are associated with Yin Yang and the Five Elements. Recent 10-year periods began in 1984, 1994, and 2004. The Earthly Branches are associated with the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Each Earthly Branch is also associated with an animal, collectively known as the Twelve Animals. Recent 12-year periods began in 1984 and 1996.
Since the numbers 10 (Heavenly Stems) and 12 (Earthly Branches) have a common factor of 2, only 1/2 of the 120 possible stem-branch combinations actually occur. The resulting 60-year (or sexagesimal) cycle takes the name jiǎzǐ (甲子) after the first year in the cycle, being the Heavenly Stem of "jiǎ" and Earthly Branch of "zǐ". The term "jiǎzǐ" is used figuratively to mean "a full lifespan"—one who has lived more than a jiǎzǐ is obviously blessed. (Compare the Biblical "three-score years and ten.")
At first, this system was used to mark days, not years. The earliest evidence of this were found on oracle bones dated c.1350 BC in Shang Dynasty. This system of date marking continues to this day, and can still be found on Chinese calendars today. Although a stem-branch cannot be used to deduce the actual day in historical events, it can assist in converting Chinese dates to other calendars more accurately.
Around the Han Dynasty, the stem-branch cycle also began to be used to mark years. The 60-year system cycles continuously, and determines the animal or sign under which a person is born (see Chinese Zodiac). These cycles were not named, and were used in conjunction with regnal names declared by the Emperor. For example: 康熙壬寅 (Kāngxī rényín) (1662 AD) is the first 壬寅 (rényín) year during the reign of 康熙 (Kāngxī), regnal name of an emperor of the Qing Dynasty.
The months and hours can also be denoted using Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches, though they are commonly addressed using Chinese numerals instead. In Chinese astrology, four Stem-Branch pairs form the Eight Characters (八字 bāzì).
Continuously-numbered years[edit | edit source]
As mentioned under Legendary beginnings above, there is no universally agreed upon "epoch" or starting point for the Chinese calendar. Tradition holds that the calendar was invented by Huang Di (黄帝) in the 61st year of his reign in what is now known under the proleptic Gregorian calendar as 2637 BCE. Many have used this date as "the" beginning of the Chinese calendar, but others have used the date of the beginning of his reign in 2697 BCE. Since these dates are exactly 60 years apart, it does not matter which is used to determine the stem/branch sequence or the astrological sign for any succeeding year. That is, 2006 is a bingxu year and the Year of the Dog regardless of whether years are counted from 2637 BCE or 2697 BCE.
For the most part, the imposition of a continuous numbering system on the Chinese calendar was of interest mostly to Jesuit missionaries and other Westerners who assumed that calendars obviously had to be continuous. However, in the early 20th century, some Chinese Republicans began to advocate widespread use of continuously numbered stem-branch cycles, so that year markings could be independent of the Emperor's regnal name. (This was part of their attempt to delegitimise the Qing Dynasty.) To this end, Sun Yat-sen identified 2698 BCE as the first year of the first cycle, and this choice was adopted by many overseas Chinese communities outside southeast Asia such as San Francisco's Chinatown. Modern chronologists believe, however, that 2698 BCE is an error (perhaps due to confusion surrounding calendar arithmetic which crosses "year 0") for the 2697 BCE epoch corresponding to the sexagesimal cycles.
If 2637 is used as the epoch, we are currently (as of 2006) in the 78th 60-year cycle since Huang Di, and 2006 is the 4643rd year. If 2697 is used as the epoch, we are in the 79th 60-year cycle, and 2006 is the 4703rd year. Perhaps because of the lingering influence of Sun Yat-sen's choice, and despite the traditional identification of 2637 as the beginning of the calendar, most references today lean towards the other interpretation, stating that we are in the 79th cycle and listing "Chinese year" numbers in the vicinity of 4703. (Adding to the confusion, a few people take Sun Yat-sen's choice of 2698 literally, and claim that 2006 is the 4704th year, although this correspondence does not synchronize properly with the 60-year cycle.) Of course, to most Chinese people terms such as "year 4703" are meaningless, since the calendar counts only in unnumbered cycles of 60.
Correspondence between systems[edit | edit source]
This table shows the stem/branch year names, correspondences to the Western (Gregorian) calendar, and other related information for the current decade. (These years are all part of the 79th sexagenary cycle, or the 78th if an epoch of 2637 BC is accepted. Or see this larger table of the full 60-year cycle.
|Jiǎzǐ (甲子) sequence||Stem/ branch||Gānzhī (干支)||Year of the... [Note 1]||Continuous [Note 2]||Gregorian [Note 3]||New Year's Day (chūnjié, 春節)|
|15||5/3||wùyín (戊寅)||Earth Tiger||4695||1998||January 28|
|16||6/4||jǐmăo (己卯)||Earth Rabbit||4696||1999||February 16|
|17||7/5||gēngchén (庚辰)||Metal Dragon||4697||2000||February 5|
|18||8/6||xīnsì (辛巳)||Metal Snake||4698||2001||January 24|
|19||9/7||rénwǔ (壬午)||Water Horse||4699||2002||February 12|
|20||10/8||guǐwèi (癸未)||Water Sheep||4700||2003||February 1|
|21||1/9||jiǎshēn (甲申)||Wood Monkey||4701||2004||January 22|
|22||2/10||yǐyǒu (乙酉)||Wood Rooster||4702||2005||February 9|
|23||3/11||bǐngxū (丙戌)||Fire Dog||4703||2006||January 29|
|24||4/12||dīnghài (丁亥)||Fire Pig||4704||2007||February 18|
|25||5/1||wùzǐ (戊子)||Earth Rat||4705||2008||February 7|
|26||6/2||jǐchǒu (己丑)||Earth Ox||4706||2009||January 26|
|27||7/3||gēngyín (庚寅)||Metal Tiger||4707||2010||February 14|
|28||8/4||xīnmăo (辛卯)||Metal Rabbit||4708||2011||February 3|
|29||9/5||rénchén (壬辰)||Water Dragon||4709||2012||January 23|
|30||10/6||guǐsì (癸巳)||Water Snake||4710||2013||February 10|
[Note 1: The beginning of each zodiac year should correspond to day of "the Beginning of Spring" (立春) (see jiéqì), not the first day of the lunar month. For example, the year of Fire Dog begins on February 4, 2006, rather than January 29.]
[Note 2: As discussed above, there is considerable difficulty in establishing a basis for the chronology of the continuous year numbers. The numbers listed here are too high by 60 if an epoch of 2637 BCE is accepted. They may be too low by 1 if an epoch of 2698 BCE is accepted. That is, according to some sources, Gregorian 2006 could alternatively correspond to 4643, or perhaps 4704.]
[Note 3: In any case, the correspondence between a lunisolar Chinese year and a solar Gregorian year is of course not exact. The first few months of each Gregorian year—those preceding Chinese New Year—belong to the previous Chinese year. For example, January 1 – January 28 of 2006 correspond to yǐyǒu or 4702. Thus, it might be more precise to state that Gregorian 2006 corresponds to 4702–4703, or that continuous Chinese 4703 corresponds to 2006–2007.]
Solar year versus lunar year[edit | edit source]
There is a distinction between a solar year and a lunar year in the Chinese calendar because the calendar is lunisolar. A lunar year (年 nián) is from one Chinese new year to the next. A solar year (歲 suì) is either the period between one Spring Equinox and the next or the period between two winter solstices (see Jiéqì section). A lunar year is exclusively used for dates, whereas a solar year, especially that between winter solstices, is used to number the months.
Hours of the day[edit | edit source]
Under the traditional system of hour-marking, each day is divided into 12 units (時辰). Each of these units is equivalent to two hours of international time. Each is named after one of the twelve Earthly Branches. The first unit, Hour of Zi (子時), begins at 11 p.m. of the previous day and ends at 1 a.m. Traditionally, executions of condemned prisoners occur at the midpoint of Hour of Wu (正午時), i.e. noon.
A second system subdivided the day into 100 equal parts, ke, each of which equalling 14.4 minutes or a familiar rough quarter of a standard Western hour. This was valid for centuries, making the Chinese first to apply decimal time - long before the French revolution. However, because 100 could not be divided equally into the 12 "hours", the system was changed to variously 96, 108, and 120 ke in a day. During the Qing Dynasty, the number was officially settled at 96, making each ke exactly a quarter of a Western hour. Today, ke is often used to refer to a quarter of an hour.
The Chinese zodiac[edit | edit source]
Template:Main The Twelve animals (十二生肖 shí'èr shēngxiào, or colloquially 十二屬相 shí'èr shǔxiàng) representing the twelve Earthly Branches are, in order, the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep (or goat), monkey, rooster, dog, and pig (or boar).
A legend explains the sequence in which the animals were assigned. Supposedly, the twelve animals fought over the precedence of the animals in the cycle of years in the calendar, so the Chinese gods held a contest to determine the order. All the animals lined up on the bank of a river and were given the task of getting to the opposite shore. Their order in the calendar would be set by the order in which the animals managed to reach the other side. The cat wondered how he would get across if he was afraid of water. At the same time, the ox wondered how he would cross with his poor eyesight. The calculating rat suggested that he and the cat jump onto the ox's back and guide him across. The ox was steady and hard-working so that he did not notice a commotion on his back. In the meanwhile, the rat snuck up behind the unsuspecting cat and shoved him into the water. Just as the ox came ashore, the rat jumped off and finished the race first. After him came the tiger, the rabbit, the dragon, the snake, the horse, the sheep, the monkey, rooster and dog.The lazy pig came to the far shore in twelfth place. And so the rat got the first year named after him, the ox got the second year, and the pig ended up as the last year in the cycle. The cat finished too late to win any place in the calendar, and vowed to be the enemy of the rat forevermore.
See the table under Correspondence between systems above for the animal names of current and nearby years.
Solar term[edit | edit source]
Chinese months follow the phases of the moon. As a result, they do not accurately follow the seasons of the solar year. To assist farmers to decide when to plant or harvest crops, the drafters of the calendar put in 24 seasonal markers, which follow the solar year, and are called jiéqì 節氣.
The term Jiéqì is usually translated as "Solar Terms" (lit. Nodes of Weather). Each node is the instant when the sun reaches one of twenty-four equally spaced points along the ecliptic, including the solstices and equinoxes, positioned at fifteen degree intervals. Because the calculation is solar-based, these jiéqì fall around the same date every year in solar calendars (e.g. the Gregorian Calendar), but do not form any obvious pattern in the Chinese calendar. The dates below are approximate and may vary slightly from year to year due to the intercalary rules (i.e. system of leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. Jiéqì are published each year in farmers' almanacs. Chinese New Year is usually the new moon closest to lìchūn.
The term jiéqì may mean all 24 solar terms, or a subset of 12 of them, the others being called zhong qi. According to this terminology the zhong qi (designated Z1 ... Z12) are major solar terms and the jiéqì are minor solar terms (designated J1 ... J12). The major solar terms are the times when the Sun reaches a point on the ecliptic which is a multiple of 30° (also known as a cusp), that is, when it enters a sign in the Western zodiac.
In the table below, these measures are given in the standard astronomical convention of ecliptic longitude, zero degrees being positioned at the vernal equinox point. This table gives the ecliptic longitude for each of the solar terms whereby the solar term is the time at which the Sun reaches that longitude. Although the 24 solar terms can be divided into 12 adjacent pairs (Z1+J2, Z2+J3, etc.), it is erroneous to equate these with months, because months occur only in the Chinese lunar year, and this may have either 12 or 13 months.
In Chinese astronomy, seasons are centered on the solstices and equinoxes, whereas in the standard Western definition, they begin at the solstices and equinoxes. Thus the term Beginning of Spring and the related Spring Festival fall in February, when it is still very chilly in temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.
|315°||立春 lìchūn J1||February 4||start of spring||spring starts here according to the Chinese definition of a season|
|330°||雨水 yǔshuǐ Z1||February 19||rain water||starting at this point, the temperature makes rain more likely than snow|
(驚蟄 jīngzhé) J2
|March 5||awakening of insects||when hibernating insects awake|
|0°||春分 chūnfēn Z2||March 21||vernal equinox||lit. the central divide of spring (referring to the Chinese seasonal definition)|
|15°||清明 qīngmíng J3||April 5||clear and bright||a Chinese festival where, traditionally, ancestral graves are tended|
|30°||穀雨 gǔyǔ or gǔyù Z3||April 20||grain rains||rain helps grain grow|
|45°||立夏 lìxià J4||May 6||start of summer||refers to the Chinese seasonal definition|
|60°||小滿 xiǎomǎn Z4||May 21||grain full||grains are plump|
|75°||芒種 mángzhòng or mángzhǒng J5||June 6||grain in ear||lit. awns (beard of grain) grow|
|90°||夏至 xiàzhì Z5||June 21||summer solstice||lit. summer extreme (of sun's height)|
|105°||小暑 xiǎoshǔ J6||July 7||minor heat||when heat starts to get unbearable|
|120°||大暑 dàshǔ Z6||July 23||major heat||the hottest time of the year|
|135°||立秋 lìqiū J7||August 7||start of autumn||uses the Chinese seasonal definition|
|150°||處暑 chùshǔ Z7||August 23||limit of heat||lit. dwell in heat|
|165°||白露 báilù J8||September 8||white dew||condensed moisture makes dew white; a sign of autumn|
|180°||秋分 qiūfēn Z8||September 23||autumnal equinox||lit. central divide of autumn (refers to the Chinese seasonal definition)|
|195°||寒露 hánlù J9||October 8||cold dew||dew starts turning into frost|
|210°||霜降 shuāngjiàng Z9||October 23||descent of frost||appearance of frost and descent of temperature|
|225°||立冬 lìdōng J10||November 7||start of winter||refers to the Chinese seasonal definition|
|240°||小雪 xiǎoxuě Z10||November 22||minor snow||snow starts falling|
|255°||大雪 dàxuě J11||December 7||major snow||season of snowstorms in full swing|
|270°||冬至 dōngzhì Z11||December 22||winter solstice||lit. winter extreme (of sun's height)|
|285°||小寒 xiǎohán J12||January 6||minor cold||cold starts to become unbearable|
|300°||大寒 dàhán Z12||January 20||major cold||coldest time of year|
Note: The third jiéqì was originally called 啓蟄 (qǐzhé) but renamed to 驚蟄 (jīngzhé) in the era of the Emperor Jing of Han (漢景帝) to avoid writing his given name 啓 (also written as 啟, a variant of 啓).
The "Song of Solar Terms" (節氣歌; pinyin: jiéqìgē) is used to ease the memorization of jiéqì:
- 春雨驚春清穀天 chūn yǔ jīng chūn qīng gǔ tiān,
- 夏滿芒夏暑相連 xià mǎn máng xià shǔ xiāng lián,
- 秋處露秋寒霜降 qiū chù lù qiū hán shuāng jiàng,
- 冬雪雪冬小大寒 dōng xuě xuě dōng xiǎo dà hán.
- 每月兩節不變更 měi yuè liǎng jié bù biàn gēng,
- 最多相差一兩天 zùi duō xiāng chā yī liǎng tiān
- 上半年來六、廿一 shàng bàn nián lái liù, niàn yī
- 下半年是八、廿三 xià bàn nián shì bā, niàn sān
Holidays[edit | edit source]
The Chinese calendar year has nine main festivals, seven determined by the lunisolar calendar, and the other two derived from the solar agricultural calendar. (Note that the farmers actually used a solar calendar, and its twenty-four terms, to determine when to plant crops, due to the inaccuracy of the lunisolar traditional calendar. However, the traditional calendar has also come to be known as the agricultural calendar.)
The two special holidays are the Tomb-Sweeping Festival (Qingming Festival and the Winter Solstice Festival, falling upon the respective solar terms, the former occurring at ecliptic longitude 15 degrees, the latter at 270 degrees. As for all other calendrical calculations, the calculations use civil time in China, eight hours ahead of UTC.
|Date||English Name||Chinese Name||Remarks||2003||2004||2005||2006||2007||2008|
|Chinese New Year,
lit. Spring Festival
|Family gathering and major festivities for three days; traditionally 15 days||Feb 1||Jan 22||Feb 9||Jan 29||Feb 18||Feb 7|
|Feb 15||Feb 5||Feb 23||Feb 12||Mar 4||Feb 21|
lit. Clear and Bright Festival
|A day for tomb sweeping||Apr 5||Apr 4||Apr 5||Apr 5||Apr 5||Apr 4|
|Dragon Boat Festival||端午節
|Dragon boat racing
and zongzi eating
|Jun 4||Jun 22||Jun 11||May 31||Jun 19||Jun 8|
|The Night of Sevens,
|A festival for lovers, equivalent to Valentine's Day||Aug 4||Aug 22||Aug 11||Jul 31||Aug 19||Aug 7|
or Spirit Festival
|A festival to offer tributes and respect to the deceased||Aug 12||Aug 30||Aug 19||Aug 8||Aug 27||Aug 15|
or Moon Festival
and moon cake eating
May be referred to as the Lantern Festival, similar in name to a different festival which falls on the fifteenth day of the Chinese New Year
|Sep 11||Sep 28||Sep 18||Oct 6||Sep 25||Sep 14|
|Double Ninth Festival,
lit. Double Yang Festival
and flower shows
|Oct 4||Oct 22||Oct 11||Oct 30||Oct 19||Oct 7|
|Xia Yuan Festival,
|Pray for a peaceful year to the Water God
||Nov 8||Nov 26||Nov 16||Dec 5||Nov 24||Nov 12|
|Winter Solstice Festival||冬至
|Family gathering||Dec 22||Dec 21||Dec 22||Dec 22||Dec 22||Dec 21|
The Chinese New Year falls on the second New Moon after the Winter Solstice, according to Taichu Calender established in Han Dynasty.
Purpose of the intercalary months[edit | edit source]
Most people, upon using or studying the Chinese calendar, are perplexed by the intercalary month because of its seemingly unpredictable nature. As mentioned above, the intercalary month refers to additional months added to the calendar in some years to correct for its deviation from the astronomical year, a function similar to that of the extra day in February in leap years.
However, because of the complex astronomical knowledge required to calculate if and when an intercalary month needs to be inserted, to most people, it is simply a mystery. This has led to a superstition that intercalary months in certain times of the year bring bad luck.
The main purpose of the intercalary month is to correct for deviations of the calendrical year from the astronomical year. Because the Chinese calendar is mainly a lunar calendar, its standard year is 354 days, whereas the astronomical year is approximately 365¼ days. Without the intercalary month, this deviation would build up over time, and the Spring festival, for example, would no longer fall in Spring. Thus, the intercalary month serves a valuable purpose in ensuring that the year in the Chinese calendar remains approximately in line with the astronomical year.
The intercalary month is inserted whenever the Chinese calendar moves too far from the stage of progression of the earth in its orbit. Thus, for example, if the beginning of a certain month in the Chinese calendar deviates by a certain number of days from its equivalent in a solar calendar, an intercalary month needs to be inserted.
The practical benefit of this system is that the calendar is able to approximately keep in pace with the solar cycle, while at the same time retaining months that roughly correspond with lunar cycles. Hence the term lunisolar calendar. The latter is important because many traditional festivals correspond to significant events in the moon's cycle. For example, the mid-autumn festival is always on a day of the full moon.
The relevance of the calendar today[edit | edit source]
There have been calls for reform in recent years from experts in China, because of the increasing irrelevance of the Chinese calendar in modern life. They point to the example in Japan, where during the Meiji Restoration the nation adopted the Western calendar, and simply shifted all traditional festivities onto an equivalent date. However, the Chinese calendar remains important as an element of cultural tradition, and for certain cultural activities.
Practical uses[edit | edit source]
The original practical relevance of the lunisolar calendar for date marking has largely disappeared. First, the Gregorian calendar is much easier to compute and more in line with both international standards and the astronomical year. Its adoption for official purposes has meant that the traditional calendar is rarely used for date marking. This, in turn, means that it is more convenient to remember significant events such as birth dates by the Gregorian rather than the Chinese calendar.
Second, the 24 solar terms were important to farmers who would not be able to plan agricultural activities without foreknowledge of these terms. However, the 24 solar terms (including the solstices and equinoxes) are more predictable on the Gregorian calendar than the lunisolar calendar since they are based on the solar cycle. It is easier for the average Chinese farmer to organise their planting and harvesting with the Gregorian calendar.
Cultural issues[edit | edit source]
However, the Chinese calendar remains culturally essential. For example, most of the traditional festivals, such as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Festival, traditionally occur at new moon or full moon. Furthermore, the traditional Chinese calendar, as an element of traditional culture, is invested with much cultural and nationalistic sentiment.
The calendar is still used in the more traditional Chinese households around the world to pick 'lucky dates' for important events such as weddings, funerals, and business deals. A special calendar is used for this purpose, called Huang Li, literally "Imperial Calendar", which contains auspicious activities, times, and directions for each day. The calendar follows the Gregorian dates but has the corresponding Chinese dates. Every date would have a comprehensive listing of astrological measurements and fortune elements.
Thus, while the traditional calendar could be removed without much practical effect, its sentimental and cultural significance will probably see its retention for some time yet.
Influence[edit | edit source]
Other traditional East Asian calendars are very similar to if not identical to the Chinese calendar: the Korean calendar is identical; the Vietnamese calendar substitutes the cat for the rabbit in the Chinese zodiac; the Tibetan calendar differs slightly in animal names, and the traditional Japanese calendar uses a different method of calculation, resulting in disagreements between the calendars in some years.
Chinese-Uighur calendar[edit | edit source]
In 1258, when both China and the Islamic world were part of the Mongol Empire, Hulagu Khan established an observatory in Maragheh for the astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi at which a few Chinese astronomers were present, resulting in the Chinese-Uighur calendar that al-Tusi describes in his Zij-i Ilkhani. The twelve year cycle, including Turkish/Mongolian translations of the animal names (known as sanawat-e turki سنوات ترکی,) remained in use for chronology, historiography, and bureaucratic purposes in the Persian and Turkish speaking world from Asia Minor to India throughout the Medieval and Early Modern periods. In Iran it remained common in agricultural records and tax assessments until a 1925 law deprecated its use.
Notes[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- van Dalen, Benno; Kennedy, E.S.; Saiyid, Mustafa K., «The Chinese-Uighur Calendar in Tusi's Zij-i Ilkhani», Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 11 (1997) 111-151.
[edit | edit source]
- Rules for the Chinese Calendar
- The Structure of the Chinese Calendar
- Chinese Zodiac Chart Find your Chinese Zodiac sign based on your date of birth.
- Calendar Conversion
- Gregorian-Chinese calendar converterOnline: only for the republican age (after 1912)
- Two-Thousand-Year Chinese Calendar Converter (in Chinese) - works for all dates from the Han Dynasty until 2100
- Chinese Calendrics Windows desktop app with search function and detailed analytical reports
- Chinese/Japanese/Vietnamese Anniversary Dates Useful for finding Western anniversary dates for Chinese dates
- Pages from the Hong Kong Observatory website
- Chinese Lunar Calendar 2006
- Chinese Lunar Calendar 2007